Considering the present world scenario, people are turning a bit cautious about how they treat the environment. We are turning into responsible citizens trying to preserve our environment for our future generations to live comfortably. Keeping this in mind the United Nations have took some strong steps to maintain the sanitation conditions, especially in the rural areas. Nowadays, when dumping of waste possesses a serious problem due to shortage of land, we have evolved with a new concept of Composting Toilets.
How do they work?
Composting Toilets are eco-friendly and relies only upon natural processes for its working. It functions in the same way as your garden dump yard, but the process is more enhanced by making mild modifications in the composting chamber. You might be wondering what happens inside the composting chamber. To answer this, we need to go into slight details of the process. For decomposition of any organic waste, aerobic bacteria are necessary. These aerobic bacteria breed only in the presence of oxygen. Therefore, a correct proportion of oxygen, moisture, heat and the waste to be decomposed are very essential inside the composting chamber. When they are in balanced proportions, the aerobic bacteria feed on these waste matters and transform them into fertilizing soil. After proper decomposition of wastes, the resulting soil becomes virus and odour free and re-enriched with all the nutrients that it should contain. Wastes leaving the toilets contain nearly 90% water in them. So, it is first evaporated and the gases evolved from it are released into the atmosphere. The remaining dry solid material is then acted upon by aerobic bacteria, which with the help of available oxygen, burn these wastes and convert them back to soils with rich nutrient contents.
The compost chamber is easy to build and has a simple and robust construction so that once it is built, it does not require much attention and maintenance. The size of the chamber can be selected as per our requirements.
Need for Composting Toilets
With increasing scarcity of available land for waste disposal, it is the need of the hour that we decompose our wastes in our own vicinity itself, without depending upon any municipal facility to do so. It has many added advantage. For example, it is very favorable for the soil in your backyard. Composting converts the waste materials into fertilizers, which can be used to nourish the soil and enrich them back with the lost nutrients. This increases the soil quality and also its yield, manifolds. The plants growing on these soils would yield much more than normal soils. This also eliminates the need for building a separate sewage tank and the entire drainage system for that matter. Composting tanks are also quite safe as it does not cause even a slight environmental degradation. Also, it helps to make an efficient use of the available land, and at the same time, increase its productivity.
Because of all the great features mentioned above, composting toilets are becoming more and more popular, in both rural and urban areas. The government is also promoting the installation of composting toilets because of its eco-friendly nature. Therefore, it is our duty to take it to the next level and install more of these composting toilets in near future.